How To Generate Any Probability Distribution

In this post I’d like to briefly describe one of my favourite algorithmic techniques: inverse transform sampling. Despite its scary-sounding name, it is actually quite a simple and very useful procedure for generating random numbers from an arbitrary, known probability distribution — given random numbers drawn from a uniform distribution. For example, if you had empirically observed from a database that a variable took on some probability distribution, and you wanted to simulate similar conditions, you would need to draw a random variable with that same distribution. How would you go about doing this?

In essence, it is simply a two-step process:

  1. Generate a random value x from the uniform distribution between 0 and 1.
  2. Return the value y such that = CDF(y), where CDF is the cumulative distribution function of the probability distribution you wish to achieve.

Why does this work? Step 1 picks a uniformly random value between 0 and 1, so you can interpret this as a probability. Step 2 inverts the desired cumulative distribution function; you are calculating y = CDF-1(x), and therefore the returned value y is such that a random variable drawn from that distribution is less than or equal to y with probability x.

Thinking in terms of the original probability density function, we are uniformly randomly choosing a proportion of the area under the curve of the PDF and returning the number in the domain such that exactly this proportion of the area occurs to the left of that number. So numbers in the regions of the PDF with greater areas are more likely to occur. The uniform distribution is thereby projected onto this desired PDF.

The Shortest Bayes Classifier Tutorial You’ll Ever Read

The Bayes classifier is one of the simplest machine learning techniques. Yet despite its simplicity, it is one of the most powerful and flexible.

Being a classifier, its job is to assign a class to some input. It chooses the most likely class given the input. That is, it chooses the class that maximises P(class | input).

Being a Bayes classifier, it uses Bayes’ rule to express this as the class that maximises P(input | class)*P(class).

All you need to build a Bayes classifier is a dataset that allows you to empirically measure P(class) and P(input | class) for all combinations of input and class. You can then store these values and reuse them to calculate the most likely class for an unseen input. It’s as simple as that.

This concludes the shortest Bayes classifier tutorial you’ll ever read.

Appendix: what happened to the denominator in Bayes’ rule?

Okay, so I cheated a little bit by adding an appendix. Even so, the tutorial above is a complete description of the Bayes classifier. Those familiar with Bayes’ rule would complain that when I rephrased P(class | input) as P(input | class)*P(class), the denominator P(input) is missing. This is correct; but since this denominator is independent of the value of class, it can safely be removed from the expression with the guarantee that the class that maximises it is the same as the class that would have maximised it if the denominator was still present. Look at it this way: say you want to find the value x that maximises the function f(x) = -x*x. This is the same value of x that maximises the function g(x) = f(x)/5, simply because the denominator, 5, is independent of the value of x. We are not interested in the actual output of f(x) or g(x), merely the value of x that maximises either.

Appendix: the naïve Bayes classifier

The Bayes classifier above comes with a caveat, though: if you have even reasonably complicated input, procuring a dataset that allows you to reliably measure P(input | class) for all unique combinations of input and class isn’t easy! For example, if you are building a binary classifier and your input consists of four features that can take on ten values each, that’s already 20,000 combinations of features and classes! A common way to remedy this problem is to regard each feature as independent of each other. That way you only need to empirically measure the likelihood of each value of each feature occurring given a certain class. You then estimate the likelihood of an entire set of features by multiplying together the likelihood of occurrence of each of its constituent feature values. This is a naïve assumption, and so results in the creation of a naïve Bayes classifier. This is also a purposely vague summary of the workings of a naïve Bayes classifier. I would recommend an Internet search for a more in-depth treatment.